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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q
 
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2023
OR 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from _________ to ____________
Commission File Number 001-36306
 
Eagle Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)
Delaware20-8179278
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
50 Tice Boulevard, Suite 315
Woodcliff Lake, NJ 07677
(201) 326-5300
(Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Registrant's Principal Executive Offices)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading symbolName of each exchange on which registered
Common stock, $0.001 par value per shareEGRXThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.   Yes     No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this Chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes     No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer" and "smaller reporting company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer 
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes    No  
The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s common stock as of May 2, 2023: 13,091,344 shares.



CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, or this Quarterly Report, contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. All statements other than statements of historical fact contained in this Quarterly Report are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “may,” “could,” “will,” “would,” “should,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “intend,” “predict,” “seek,” “contemplate,” “project,” “continue,” “potential,” “ongoing,” “prospects,” “outlook,” “goal,” or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

statements related to our expectations with respect to the potential benefits to us from our acquisition of Acacia Pharma Group plc;
the potential benefits and commercial potential of our approved products, including rapidly infused bendamustine ready-to-dilute (“RTD"), or Bendeka, Treakisym, Ryanodex® (dantrolene sodium), or Ryanodex, bendamustine ready-to-dilute, 500ml solution, or Belrapzo, BARHEMSYS®, BYFAVO®, PEMFEXY®, and vasopressin, for approved indications and any expanded uses;
statements related to our expectations with respect to our investment in Enalare Therapeutics, Inc., or Enalare, including with respect to the anticipated financial impact on us of the agreement with Enalare, potential benefits to us, the achievement of related milestones and timing thereof, our potential further investment in Enalare pursuant to the terms of the agreement, the commercial potential of Enalare's product candidates and Enalare's development program, including with respect to current and future clinical trials and timing thereof, and expectations regarding our future growth and the expansion of our growth possibilities as a result of the investment in Enalare;
the commercial potential of additional indications for our products;
sales of our products in various markets worldwide, pricing for our products, level of insurance coverage and reimbursement for our products, timing regarding development and regulatory approvals for our products or for additional indications or in additional territories;
future expansion of our commercial organization and transition to third-parties in certain jurisdictions to perform sales, marketing and distribution functions;
the number and timing of potential product launches, development initiatives or new indications for the Company’s product candidates, and the commercial potential of additional indications for our products;
the initiation, timing, design, progress and results of our preclinical studies and clinical trials, and our research and development programs;
our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of our products and product candidates, and any related restrictions, limitations, and/or warnings in the label of an approved product;
our plans to research, develop and commercialize our products and product candidates and our ability to successfully commercialize our products and product candidates;
our ability to conduct a strategic transaction on expected timing, favorable terms or at all;
our ability to attract collaborators with development, regulatory and commercialization expertise;
the size and growth potential of the markets for our products and product candidates, and our ability to serve those markets;
the impact of the coronavirus 2019, or COVID-19, pandemic on our business and operations, results of operations and financial performance including: disruption in the sales of our marketed products; delays, interruptions or other adverse effects to clinical trials and patient enrollment; delays in regulatory review; manufacturing and supply chain interruptions; and the adverse effects on healthcare systems, volatility of the financial and credit markets and disruption of the global economy overall;
the impact of geopolitical events, such as the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine and related sanctions, and macroeconomic conditions, such as rising inflation and interest rates, recent and potential disruptions in banking systems and uncertainty in credit and financial markets, on our business and operations, results operations and financial performance;
the diversion of healthcare resources away from the conduct of clinical trials as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, including the diversion of hospitals and doctor offices serving as locations for administration of our products, including Bendeka and hospital staff supporting the conduct of such administration;
the rate and degree of market acceptance of our products;
our ability to significantly grow our commercial sales and marketing organization, whether alone or with potential future collaborators;
the performance of our strategic collaborators and success of our current strategic collaborators;
regulatory developments in the United States and foreign countries;
the performance of our third-party suppliers and manufacturers;
the success of competing drugs that are or become available;



the retention of key scientific or management personnel;
our ability to obtain additional funding for our operations;
our ability to obtain, maintain, protect and enhance intellectual property rights and proprietary technologies and operate our business without infringing the intellectual property rights and proprietary technology of third parties;
our ability to prevent or minimize the effects of litigation and other contingencies; and
our expectations regarding anticipated future costs, operating expenses and capital requirements.

Any forward-looking statements in this Quarterly Report reflect our current views with respect to future events or to our future financial performance and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties, assumptions and other factors described under the “Risk Factors” section and elsewhere in this Quarterly Report, that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Given these uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements.

In addition, statements such as “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this report, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. Also, these forward-looking statements represent our plans, objectives, estimates, expectations and intentions only as of the date of this filing. You should read this report completely and with the understanding that our actual future results and the timing of events may be materially different from what we expect, and we cannot otherwise guarantee that any forward-looking statement will be realized. We hereby qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements. These statements are inherently uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements as predictions of future events. Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update or revise these forward-looking statements for any reason, even if new information becomes available in the future.

This Quarterly Report also contains estimates, projections and other information concerning our industry, our business, and the markets for certain diseases, including data regarding the estimated size of those markets, and the incidence and prevalence of certain medical conditions. Information that is based on estimates, forecasts, projections, market research or similar methodologies is inherently subject to uncertainties and actual events or circumstances may differ materially from events and circumstances reflected in this information. Unless otherwise expressly stated, we obtained this industry, business, market and other data from reports, research surveys, studies and similar data prepared by market research firms and other third parties, industry, medical and general publications, government data and similar sources.


NOTE REGARDING COMPANY REFERENCES

References to the “Company,” “Eagle Pharmaceuticals,” “Eagle,” “we,” “us” or “our” mean Eagle Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation, together with its subsidiaries, references to “Eagle Biologics” mean Eagle Biologics, Inc., “Eagle Research Lab” means Eagle Research Lab Limited, and "Acacia Pharma" means Acacia Pharma Group plc.


NOTE REGARDING TRADEMARKS

All trademarks, trade names and service marks appearing in this Quarterly Report are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this Quarterly Report may appear without the ® or TM symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate in any way that the Company will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, its rights or the rights of the applicable licensor to these trademarks and trade names. The Company does not intend its use or display of other entities’ trade names, trademarks or service marks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of the Company by, any other entity.








TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Part I - Financial Information (unaudited)
Item 1.Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Part II - Other Information
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Risk Factors
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 5.
Item 6.





PART I—FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1. Financial Statements

EAGLE PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS (UNAUDITED)
(In thousands, except share amounts)

March 31, 2023December 31, 2022
ASSETS
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$21,897 $55,321 
Accounts receivable, net114,953 72,439 
Inventories44,140 47,794 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets11,501 13,200 
Total current assets192,491 188,754 
Property and equipment, net1,116 1,168 
Intangible assets, net112,875 118,327 
Goodwill 45,033 45,033 
Deferred tax asset, net 29,150 27,146 
Other assets33,510 25,732 
Total assets$414,175 $406,160 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY 
Current liabilities: 
Accounts payable$17,108 $18,993 
Accrued expenses and other liabilities73,201 85,844 
Short-term debt7,500 6,250 
Total current liabilities97,809 111,087 
Long-term debt68,829 56,216 
Other long-term liabilities4,692 5,297 
Total liabilities171,330 172,600 
Commitments and Contingencies
Stockholders' equity:
Preferred stock, 1,500,000 shares authorized and no shares issued or outstanding as of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022
  
Common stock, $0.001 par value; 50,000,000 shares authorized; 17,636,973 and 17,569,375 shares issued as of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively
18 18 
Additional paid in capital369,800 366,265 
Accumulated other comprehensive (loss)(1,112)(1,112)
Retained earnings 117,254 111,504 
Treasury stock, at cost, 4,552,730 and 4,552,730 shares as of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively
(243,115)(243,115)
Total stockholders' equity242,845 233,560 
Total liabilities and stockholders' equity$414,175 $406,160 
See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements (unaudited).
1


EAGLE PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS (UNAUDITED)
(In thousands, except share and per share amounts)

 Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20232022
Revenue:
Product sales, net$46,221 $90,088 
Royalty revenue20,084 25,786 
Total revenue66,305 115,874 
Operating expenses:
Cost of product sales 17,300 25,176 
Cost of royalty revenue 2,579 
Research and development9,272 6,108 
Selling, general and administrative27,960 22,182 
Total operating expenses54,532 56,045 
Income from operations11,773 59,829 
Interest income212 154 
Interest expense(1,516)(366)
Other expense(238)(1,957)
Total other expense, net(1,542)(2,169)
Income before income tax provision10,231 57,660 
Income tax provision(4,481)(13,602)
Net income $5,750 $44,058 
Earnings per share attributable to common stockholders:
Basic $0.44 $3.47 
Diluted $0.44 $3.41 
Weighted average number of common shares outstanding:
Basic 13,059,153 12,710,646 
Diluted 13,153,271 12,906,811 
See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements (unaudited).

2


EAGLE PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (UNAUDITED)
(In thousands)


Three Months Ended
March 31,
20232022
Net income $5,750 $44,058 
Other comprehensive income, net of tax:
Unrealized gain for convertible promissory note
 512 
Total other comprehensive income  512 
Comprehensive income $5,750 $44,570 


3


EAGLE PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY (UNAUDITED)
(In thousands)
Common StockAdditional
Paid-In Capital
Treasury StockAccumulated Other Comprehensive (Loss)Retained EarningsTotal
Stockholders'
Equity
Number of
Shares
Amount
Balance as of December 31, 202217,569 $18 $366,265 $(243,115)$(1,112)$111,504 $233,560 
Stock-based compensation expense— — 4,639 — — — 4,639 
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock option grants68 — (1,104)— — — (1,104)
Net income— — — — — 5,750 5,750 
Balance as of March 31, 202317,637 $18 $369,800 $(243,115)$(1,112)$117,254 $242,845 


Common StockAdditional
Paid-In Capital
Treasury StockAccumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)Retained EarningsTotal
Stockholders'
Equity
Number of
Shares
Amount
Balance as of December 31, 202116,903 $17 $325,779 $(225,111)$(94)$75,862 $176,453 
Stock-based compensation expense— — 4,295 — — — 4,295 
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock option grants73 — (1,305)— — — (1,305)
Common stock repurchases— — — (8,053)— — (8,053)
Other comprehensive income— — — — 512 — 512 
Net income— — — — — 44,058 44,058 
Balance as of March 31, 202216,976 $17 $328,769 $(233,164)$418 $119,920 $215,960 
See accompanying notes to unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
4


EAGLE PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS (UNAUDITED)
(In thousands)
 Three Months Ended March 31,
 20232022
Cash flows from operating activities:  
Net income 5,750 $44,058 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:  
Deferred income taxes(2,183)(2,432)
Depreciation expense110 177 
Noncash operating lease expense related to right-of-use assets333 290 
Amortization expense of intangible assets5,450 731 
Fair value adjustments on equity investment 403 2,530 
Stock-based compensation expense4,639 4,295 
Convertible promissory note related credit losses 36 
Amortization of debt issuance costs 113 118 
   Fair value adjustments related to derivative instruments(77)(608)
Accretion of discount on convertible promissory note (45)
Changes in operating assets and liabilities which provided (used) cash: 
Accounts receivable(42,515)(89,710)
Inventories3,654 (2,910)
Prepaid expenses and other current assets1,700 (1,948)
Accounts payable(1,884)(1,651)
Accrued expenses and other liabilities(8,633)30,800 
Other assets and other long-term liabilities, net(372)(342)
Net cash used in operating activities(33,512)(16,611)
Cash flows from investing activities:  
Purchase of equity investment security(12,500) 
Purchase of property and equipment(58)(168)
Net cash used in investing activities(12,558)(168)
Cash flows from financing activities:  
Proceeds from revolving credit facility15,000  
Employee withholding taxes related to stock-based awards(1,104)(1,305)
Payment of debt (1,250)(2,000)
Repurchases of common stock  (8,053)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities12,646 (11,358)
Net decrease in cash and cash equivalents(33,424)(28,137)
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period55,321 97,659 
Cash and cash equivalents at end of period$21,897 $69,522 
Supplemental disclosures of cash flow information: 
Cash paid during the period for:  
Income taxes, net$200 $41 
Interest 1,316 265 
See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements (unaudited).
5


EAGLE PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED)
(In thousands, except share and per share amounts)

1. Basis of Presentation and Other Company Information
The accompanying unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”) for interim information and pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) for reporting quarterly information. Accordingly, certain information and footnote disclosures required for complete financial statements are not included herein. The condensed consolidated balance sheet at December 31, 2022 was derived from audited financial statements, but certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in our annual consolidated financial statements have been condensed or omitted. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (consisting only of normal recurring adjustments) necessary for the fair presentation of the financial information for the interim periods reported have been made. Results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2023 are not necessarily indicative of the results for the year ending December 31, 2023 or any period thereafter. These unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements and related notes included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022, filed with the SEC on March 23, 2023.
Eagle Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (the "Company", "Eagle", or "we") is an integrated pharmaceutical company focused on finding ways to help medicines do more for patients. We and our collaborators have the capabilities to take a molecule from preclinical research through regulatory approval and into the marketplace, including development, manufacturing and commercialization. Our business model applies our scientific expertise, proprietary research-based insights and marketplace proficiency to identify challenging-to-treat diseases of the central nervous system or metabolic critical care therapeutic areas as well as in oncology. By focusing on patients' unmet needs, we strive to provide healthcare professionals with urgently needed treatment solutions that are designed to improve patient care and outcomes and create near- and long-term value for our stakeholders, including patients and healthcare providers and our employees, marketing partners, collaborators and investors. Our science-based business model has a proven track record with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ("FDA") approval and commercial launches of six products: PEMFEXY® (pemetrexed for injection), vasopressin, an A-rated generic alternative to Vasostrict®, Ryanodex® (dantrolene sodium) ("Ryanodex"), bendamustine ready-to-dilute ("RTD") 500ml solution ("Belrapzo"), and rapidly infused bendamustine RTD ("Bendeka") and bendamustine ready-to-dilute and rapidly infused RTD in Japan (“Treakisym”). We market our products through marketing partners and/or our internal direct sales force. We market PEMFEXY, vasopressin, Ryanodex and Belrapzo, and Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. ("Teva") markets Bendeka through its subsidiary Cephalon, Inc. SymBio Pharmaceuticals Limited ("SymBio"), markets Treakisym, a RTD product, in Japan.
On June 9, 2022, we acquired all of the outstanding share capital of Acacia Pharma Group plc (“Acacia”), which added two FDA approved new chemical entities with patent protection, BARHEMSYS® (amisulpride for injection) and BYFAVO® (remimazolam for injection). Refer to Note 13 for further details.

2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Significant Accounting Policies
Our significant accounting policies are described in the audited consolidated financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022 and the notes thereto filed with the SEC on March 23, 2023. Since the date of those consolidated financial statements, there have been no material changes to our significant accounting policies.

Change in Functional Currency
Effective January 1, 2023, the Company adopted the US dollar as its functional currency for Acacia subsidiaries. Prior to January 1, 2023, the functional currency of the Acacia was the Pound Sterling.

The change in functional currency of Acacia is due to the integration of Acacia and the legacy Eagle businesses being completed beginning in the first quarter of 2023. As a result of the integration, the nature and volume of the UK operations and
6


funding received by the UK entities are denominated in the US dollar. Therefore, the UK operations of Acacia are considered integrated and parent dependent.

The Company’s financial results have been reported in US dollars. The effect of a change in the functional currency is accounted for prospectively. More specifically, translation adjustments for prior periods are not removed from equity and the translated amounts for nonmonetary assets at the end of the prior period became the accounting basis for those assets, effective January 1, 2023. Exchange differences arising from the translation that were previously recognized in other comprehensive income are not reclassified from equity to profit and loss until the disposal of the operations attributable to Acacia.
Use of Estimates
These condensed consolidated financial statements are presented in U.S. dollars and are prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The preparation of condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the condensed consolidated financial statements including disclosure of gross to net estimates as of the date of the condensed consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period and accompanying notes. Our critical accounting policies are those that are both most important to our financial condition and results of operations and also require the most difficult, subjective or complex judgments on the part of management in their application, often as a result of the need to make estimates about the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain. As of the date of issuance of these condensed consolidated financial statements, we are not aware of any specific event or circumstance that would require us to update our estimates, assumptions and judgments or revise the carrying value of our assets or liabilities. Because of the uncertainty of factors surrounding the estimates or judgments used in the preparation of the condensed consolidated financial statements, actual results may materially vary from these estimates, and any such differences may be material to our condensed consolidated financial statements.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
We consider all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. All cash and cash equivalents are held in United States financial institutions. The carrying amount of cash and cash equivalents approximates its fair value due to its short-term nature.
We, at times, maintain balances with financial institutions in excess of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) limit.
Fair Value Measurements

U.S. GAAP establishes a framework for measuring fair value under generally accepted accounting principles and enhances disclosures about fair value measurements. Fair value is defined as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. Valuation techniques used to measure fair value must maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs. The standard describes the following fair value hierarchy based on three levels of inputs, of which the first two are considered observable and the last unobservable, that may be used to measure fair value:
Level 1: Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2: Inputs other than Level 1 that are observable, either directly or indirectly, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities; quoted prices in markets that are not active; or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.
Level 3: Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities.
The fair value of interest-bearing cash, cash equivalents, accounts receivable and accounts payable approximate fair value due to their life being short term in nature, and are classified as Level 1 for all periods presented.
7


Financial assets and liabilities measured and recognized at fair value are as follows:
March 31, 2023
TotalLevel 1Level 2Level 3
Assets:
Money market funds$17,702 $17,702 $ $ 
Investment in Syros Pharmaceuticals, Inc. ("Syros")
1,170 1,170   
Investment in Enalare Therapeutics, Inc.16,952   16,952 
Acquisition rights of Enalare Therapeutics, Inc.8,125   8,125 
December 31, 2022
TotalLevel 1Level 2Level 3
Assets:
Money market funds$47,567 $47,567 $ $ 
Investment in Syros Pharmaceuticals, Inc. ("Syros")1,573 1,573   
Investment in Enalare Therapeutics, Inc.8,438   8,438 
Acquisition rights of Enalare Therapeutics, Inc.8,125   8,125 
Liabilities:
Forward Liability$4,063 $ $ $4,063 


We recognize transfers between levels within the fair value hierarchy, if any, at the end of each quarter. There were no transfers in or out of Level 1, Level 2 or Level 3 during the three months ended March 31, 2023.

Our investment in Enalare Therapeutics Inc., related acquisition right and forward liability were classified as Level 3. We used a probability factor to value the asset related to the acquired acquisition rights based on management's best estimate, including the probability of completion of certain development milestones. The equity stake was accounted for as non-readily determinable fair value (“RDFV”) investment. The equity investment and acquisition right was reported at fair value as of March 31, 2023. Refer to Note 14, Investment in Enalare Therapeutics Inc. for further information.

Our investment in restricted shares of common stock of Syros Pharmaceuticals, Inc. ("Syros"), following the merger of Tyme Technologies, Inc. (“Tyme”) and Syros on September 16, 2022, are classified as Level 1. Refer to Note 12, License and Collaboration Agreements for further details.

The fair value of debt is classified as Level 2 for the periods presented and approximates its fair value due to the variable interest rate.
8


Intangible Assets
We review the recoverability of our finite-lived intangible assets and long-lived assets for indicators of impairments. Events or circumstances that may require an impairment assessment include negative clinical trial results, a significant decrease in the market price of the asset, or a significant adverse change in legal factors or the manner in which the asset is used. If such indicators are present, we assess the recoverability of affected assets by determining if the carrying value of such assets is less than the sum of the undiscounted future cash flows of the assets. If such assets are found to not be recoverable, we measure the amount of the impairment by comparing to the carrying value of the assets to the fair value of the assets. We determined that no indicators of impairment of finite-lived intangible assets or long-lived assets existed as of March 31, 2023.
Goodwill
Goodwill represents the excess of purchase price over the fair value of net assets acquired in the Eagle Biologics and Acacia acquisitions. Goodwill is not amortized, but is evaluated for impairment on an annual basis, in the fourth quarter, or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the reporting unit’s goodwill is less than its carrying amount. We did not identify any impairment to goodwill during the periods presented.
Concentration of Major Customers and Vendors
The Company is exposed to risks associated with extending credit to customers related to the sale of products. The Company does not require collateral to secure amounts due from its customers. The Company uses an expected loss methodology to calculate allowances for trade receivables. The Company's measurement of expected credit losses is based on relevant information about past events, including historical experience, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts that affect the collectability of the reported amount. The Company does not currently have a material allowance for collectible trade receivables.
Further, the Company is dependent on its commercial partner to market and sell Bendeka; therefore, the Company's future revenues are highly dependent on the collaboration and distribution arrangement with Teva.

Teva markets Bendeka through a license agreement with the Company. Pursuant to that license agreement, Teva pays the Company a royalty based on net sales of the product and also purchases the product from the Company. A disruption in this arrangement, caused by, among other things, a supply disruption, loss of exclusivity or the launch of a superior product would have a material adverse effect on our balance sheet, results of operations and cash flows.
The total revenues and accounts receivables broken down by major customers as a percentage of the total are as follows:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20232022
Total revenues
Teva - See Revenue Recognition
32 %24 %
Customer A38 %19 %
Customer B11 %15 %
Customer C7 %13 %
Customer D6 %9 %
Other6 %20 %
100 %100 %
9


March 31, December 31,
20232022
Accounts receivable
Teva - See Revenue Recognition
19 %31 %
Customer A36 %1 %
Customer B22 %57 %
Customer C0 %5 %
Customer D4 %2 %
Other19 %4 %
100 %100 %

Inventories
Inventories are recorded at the lower of cost and net realizable value, with cost determined on a first-in first-out basis. We periodically review the composition of inventory in order to identify obsolete, slow-moving or otherwise non-saleable items. If these items are observed and there are no alternate uses for the inventory, we will record a write-down to lower of cost and net realizable value in the period that the decline in value is first recognized.
Research and Development Expense
Costs for research and development are charged to expense as incurred and include; employee-related expenses including salaries, benefits, travel and stock-based compensation expense for research and development personnel; expenses incurred under agreements with contract research organizations, contract manufacturing organizations and service providers that assist in conducting clinical and preclinical studies; costs associated with preclinical activities and development activities, costs associated with regulatory operations; and depreciation expense for assets used in research and development activities.
Costs for certain development activities, such as in licensing intellectual property related to new projects, clinical studies, are recognized based on an evaluation of the progress to completion of specific tasks using data such as patient enrollment, clinical site activations, or information provided to us by our vendors on their actual costs incurred. Payments for these activities are based on the terms of the individual arrangements, which may differ from the patterns of costs incurred, and are reflected in the condensed consolidated financial statements as prepaid expenses or accrued expenses as deemed appropriate. Recoveries of previously recognized research and development expenses from third parties are recorded as a reduction to research and development expense in the period it becomes realizable.
Advertising and Marketing
Advertising and marketing costs are expensed as incurred. Advertising and marketing costs were $3.7 million and $1.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
Income Taxes
We account for income taxes using the liability method in accordance with ASC 740 - Income Taxes (“ASC 740”). Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on temporary differences between financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities and are measured by applying enacted rates and laws to taxable years in which differences are expected to be recovered or settled. Further, the effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income (loss) in the period that the rate changes. A valuation allowance is required when it is “more likely than not” that all or a portion of deferred tax assets will not be realized. ASC 740 also prescribes a comprehensive model for how a company should recognize, measure, present and disclose in its financial statements uncertain tax positions that a company has taken or expects to take on a tax return, including a decision whether to file or not file a return in a particular jurisdiction. We recognize any interest and penalties accrued related to unrecognized tax benefits as income tax expense.
10


Revenue Recognition
Revenue is recognized when a customer obtains control of promised goods or services, in an amount that reflects the consideration which the entity expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. To determine revenue recognition for arrangements that an entity determines are within the scope of ASC 606 - Revenue from Contracts with Customers ("ASC 606"), the Company performs the following five steps: (i) identify the contract(s) with a customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation. The Company only applies the five-step model to contracts when it is probable that the entity will collect the consideration it is entitled to in exchange for the goods or services it transfers to the customer. At contract inception, once the contract is determined to be within the scope of ASC 606, the Company assesses the goods or services promised within each contract and determines those that are performance obligations, and assesses whether each promised good or service is distinct. The Company then recognizes as revenue the amount of the transaction price that is allocated to the respective performance obligation when (or as) the performance obligation is satisfied. Sales, value add, and other taxes collected on behalf of third parties are excluded from revenue.
Product revenue - The Company recognizes net revenue on sales to its commercial partners and to end users. In each instance, revenue is generally recognized when the customer obtains control of the Company’s product, which occurs at a point in time, and may be upon shipment or upon delivery based on the contractual shipping terms of a contract. Receivables from our product sales have payment terms ranging from 30 to 75 days with select extended terms to wholesalers on purchases of product launch quantities.
Revenue is measured as the amount of consideration the Company expects to receive in exchange for transferring products or services to a customer. To the extent the transaction price includes variable consideration, the Company estimates the amount of variable consideration that should be included in the transaction price generally utilizing the expected value method to which the Company expects to be entitled. As such, revenue on sales to end users for vasopressin, Pemfexy, Belrapzo, Ryanodex, Barhemsys, and Byfavo are recorded net of chargebacks, rebates, returns, prompt pay discounts, wholesaler fees and other deductions. Our products are contracted with a limited number of oncology distributors and hospital buying groups with narrow differences in ultimate realized contract prices used to estimate our allowance for chargebacks and rebate reserves. The Company has a product returns policy on some of its products that allows the customer to return pharmaceutical products within a specified period of time both prior to and subsequent to the product’s expiration date. The Company's estimate of the provision for returns is analyzed quarterly and is based upon many factors, including historical experience of actual returns and analysis of the level of inventory in the distribution channel, if any. The Company has terms on sales of Ryanodex by which the Company does not accept returns. Variable consideration is included in the transaction price if, in the Company’s judgment, it is probable that a significant future reversal of cumulative revenue under the contract will not occur. Estimates of variable consideration are made generally using the expected value method and determination of whether to include estimated amounts in the transaction price are based largely on an assessment of the Company’s anticipated performance and all information (historical, current and forecasted) that is reasonably available. The Company believes that the estimates it has established are reasonable based upon current facts and circumstances. Applying different judgments to the same facts and circumstances could result in the estimated amounts to vary.
11


Components of Gross-to-Net (GTN) Estimates
Chargebacks: Chargebacks are discounts that occur when certain contracted customers, including group purchasing organizations (“GPOs”), public health service institutions and federal government entities purchasing via the Federal Supply Schedule, purchase from the Company's distributors. The Company's distributors purchase product from us at invoice price, then resell the product to certain contracted customers on the basis of prices negotiated between us and the providers. The difference between the distributors’ purchase price and the typically lower certain contracted customers’ purchase price is refunded to the distributors through a chargeback credit. We record estimates for these chargebacks at the time of sale as deductions from gross revenues, with corresponding adjustments to our accounts receivable reserves and allowances.
The provision for chargebacks is the most significant provision in the context of the Company’s gross-to-net adjustments in the determination of net revenue. Chargebacks are estimated based on payer mix and contracted price, adjusted for current period assumptions.

Commercial and Medicaid Rebates: The Company contracts with government agencies or collectively, third-party payors, so that vasopressin, Pemfexy, Belrapzo, Ryanodex, Barhemsys, and Byfavo will be eligible for purchase by, or partial or full reimbursement from, such third-party payors. The Company estimates the rebates it will provide to third-party payors and deducts these estimated amounts from total gross product revenues at the time the revenues are recognized. These reserves are recorded in the same period in which the revenue is recognized, resulting in a reduction of product revenue and the establishment of a current liability. The current liability is included in accrued expenses and other current liabilities on the consolidated balance sheets. The Company estimates the rebates that it will provide to third-party payors based upon (i) the Company’s contracts with these third-party payors, (ii) the government mandated discounts applicable to government-funded programs, (iii) a range of possible outcomes that are probability-weighted for the estimated payer mix, and (iv) information obtained from the Company’s distributors.

The information that the Company also considers when establishing its rebate reserves are purchases by customers, projected annual sales for customers, actual rebates payments made, processing time lags, and for indirect rebates, the level of inventory in the distribution channel that will be subject to indirect rebates. We do not provide incentives designed to increase shipments to our customers that we believe would result in out-of-the-ordinary course of business inventory for them. The Company regularly reviews and monitors estimated or actual customer inventory information at its largest distributors for its key products to ascertain whether customer inventories are in excess of ordinary course of business levels.

Product Returns: The Company's provision for product returns based on the factors noted above generally encompass a time range from 12 to 48 months after revenue is recognized. The Company’s distributors have the right to return unopened unprescribed vasopressin, Pemfexy, Belrapzo, Barhemsys, and Byfavo during certain time periods around the period beginning prior to the labeled expiration date and ending after the labeled expiration date. The Company estimates future product returns on sales of vasopressin, Pemfexy, Belrapzo, Barhemsys, and Byfavo based on: (i) data provided to the Company by its distributors (including weekly reporting of distributors’ sales and inventory held by distributors that provided the Company with visibility into the distribution channel in order to determine what quantities were sold to retail pharmacies and other providers), (ii) data provided to the Company by a third-party data provider which collects and publishes prescription data, and other third parties, (iii) historical industry information regarding return rates for similar pharmaceutical products, (iv) the estimated remaining shelf life of vasopressin, Pemfexy, Belrapzo, Barhemsys, and Byfavo previously shipped and currently being shipped to distributors and (v) contractual agreements intended to limit the amount of inventory maintained by the Company’s distributors. These reserves are recorded in the same period the related revenue is recognized, resulting in a reduction of product revenue and the establishment of a current liability which is included in accrued expenses and other current liabilities on the consolidated balance sheets.

Wholesaler fees and other incentives: The Company generally provides invoice discounts on vasopressin, Pemfexy, Belrapzo, Ryanodex, Barhemsys, and Byfavo sales to its distributors for prompt payment and fees for distribution services, such as fees for certain data that distributors provide to the Company. The payment terms for sales to distributors generally include a 2% discount for prompt payment which is generally defined in invoice terms as a range from 15 to 45 days, while the fees for distribution services are based on contractual rates agreed with the respective distributors. Based on historical data, the Company expects its distributors to earn these discounts and fees, and deducts the full amount of these discounts and fees from its gross product revenues and accounts receivable at the time such revenues are recognized. In certain cases, the Company may record the fees as accrued expenses if the Company expects that the fees will be paid rather than deducted by the distributor.
12



Royalty Revenue — The Company recognizes revenue from license arrangements with its commercial partners' net sales of products. Royalties are recognized as earned in accordance with contract terms when they can be reasonably estimated and collectability is reasonably assured. The Company's commercial partners are obligated to report their net product sales and the resulting royalty due to the Company within 25 days from the end of each quarter. Based on historical product sales, royalty receipts and other relevant information, the Company accrues royalty revenue each quarter and subsequently determines a true-up when it receives royalty reports from its commercial partners. Historically, these true-up adjustments have been immaterial. Our receivables from royalty revenue are due 45-days from the end of the quarter.

License and other revenue — The Company analyzes each element of its licensing agreements to determine the appropriate revenue recognition. The terms of the license agreement may include payment to us of non-refundable up-front license fees, milestone payments if specified objectives are achieved, and/or royalties on product sales. The Company recognizes revenue from upfront payments at a point in time, typically upon fulfilling the delivery of the associated intellectual property to the customer.
If the contract contains a single performance obligation, the entire transaction price is allocated to the single performance obligation. Contracts that contain multiple performance obligations require an allocation of the transaction price based on the estimated relative standalone selling prices of the promised products or services underlying each performance obligation. The Company determines standalone selling prices based on the price at which the performance obligation is sold separately. If the standalone selling price is not observable through past transactions, the Company estimates the standalone selling price taking into account available information such as market conditions and internally approved pricing guidelines related to the performance obligations.
The Company recognizes sales-based milestone payments as revenue upon the achievement of the cumulative sales amount specified in the contract in accordance with ASC 606-10-55-65. For those milestone payments which are contingent on the occurrence of particular future events, the Company determined that these need to be considered for inclusion in the calculation of total consideration from the contract as a component of variable consideration using the most-likely amount method. As such, the Company assesses each milestone to determine the probability and substance behind achieving each milestone. Given the inherent uncertainty of the occurrence of these future events, the Company will not recognize revenue from the milestone until there is not a high probability of a reversal of revenue, which typically occurs near or upon achievement of the event.
When determining the transaction price of a contract, an adjustment is made if payment from a customer occurs either significantly before or significantly after performance, resulting in a significant financing component. Applying the practical expedient in paragraph 606-10-32-18, the Company does not assess whether a significant financing component exists if the period between when the Company performs its obligations under the contract and when the customer pays is one year or less. None of the Company’s contracts contained a significant financing component as of March 31, 2023.
Stock-Based Compensation
The Company utilizes stock-based compensation in the form of stock options, restricted stock units ("RSUs") and performance-based stock units ("PSUs"), each of which may be granted separately or in tandem with other awards.
Compensation expense is recognized in the Consolidated Statements of operations based on the estimated fair value of the awards at grant date ratably over the requisite service period, which generally equals the vesting period of the award.
The grant-date fair value of stock awards is based upon the underlying price of the stock on the date of grant. The grant-date fair value of stock option awards must be determined using an option pricing model. The Company uses the Black-Scholes option pricing formula for determining the grant-date fair value of such awards. Option pricing models require the use of estimates and assumptions as to (a) the expected term of the option, (b) the expected volatility of the price of the underlying stock and (c) the risk-free interest rate for the expected term of the option.
The Company may also grant performance-based stock awards to employees from time-to-time in form of market condition or performance condition. The grant-date fair value of awards that vest based on achievement of certain market condition are determined using a Monte Carlo simulation technique. The grant-date fair value of awards that vest based on achievement of
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certain performance condition are determined using the accelerated attribution method once it is probable that the performance condition will be achieved.
Earnings Per Share
Basic earnings per common share is computed using the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per share is computed in a manner similar to the basic earnings per share, except that the weighted-average number of shares outstanding is increased to include all common shares, including those with the potential to be issued by virtue of options. Diluted earnings per share contemplate a complete conversion to common shares of all convertible instruments only if they are dilutive in nature with regards to earnings per share, as calculated under the treasury method.
The anti-dilutive common share equivalents outstanding for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022 were as follows:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20232022
Stock options2,384,769 2,103,544 
Restricted stock units
163,950 79,724 
Total2,548,719 2,183,268 

The following table sets forth the computation for basic and diluted net earnings per share for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20232022
Numerator
Net income$5,750 $44,058 
Denominator
Basic weighted average common shares outstanding 13,059,153 12,710,646 
Dilutive effect of stock awards 94,118 196,165 
Diluted weighted average common shares outstanding 13,153,271 12,906,811 
Basic net earnings per share
Basic net earnings per share $0.44 $3.47 
Diluted net earnings per share
Diluted net earnings per share $0.44 $3.41 

Recent Accounting Pronouncements
There are several new accounting pronouncements issued by the FASB that we have adopted or will adopt, as applicable. We do not believe any of these accounting pronouncements have had, or will have, a material impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements or disclosures.


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3. Property and Equipment, net
Property and equipment consisted of the following:
 March 31, 2023December 31, 2022Estimated Useful Life (years)
Furniture and fixtures$1,525 $1,525 7
Office equipment1,077 1,077 3
Equipment4,070 4,012 7
Leasehold improvements1,155 1,155 2
 7,827 7,769  
Less accumulated depreciation(6,711)(6,601)
Property and equipment, net$1,116 $1,168  

Depreciation expense related to property and equipment amounted to $0.1 million and $0.2 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.

4. Inventories
Inventories consist of the following:
March 31, December 31,
20232022
Raw materials $12,198 $12,348 
Work in process 9,386 14,064 
Finished products 22,556 21,382 
Total inventories$44,140 $47,794 



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5. Balance Sheet Accounts
Prepaid Expenses and Other Current Assets
Prepaid expenses and other current assets consist of the following:
March 31, December 31,
20232022
Prepaid income taxes$306 $90 
Prepaid FDA user fee and advances to clinical research organization1,506 3,022 
Prepaid insurance1,661 258 
Advances to commercial manufacturers3,630 5,464 
Prepaid R&D
754 106 
Pass-through receivables1,069 1,001 
All other2,575 3,259 
Total prepaid expenses and other current assets$11,501 $13,200 

Accrued Expenses
Accrued expenses consist of the following:
March 31, December 31,
20232022
Accrued product sales reserves$38,327 $33,000 
Income taxes payable12,583 5,182 
Royalties payable to commercial partners6,306 7,205 
Accrued salary and other compensation 3,856 5,293 
Accrued professional fees5,688 5,541 
Accrued research & development628 1,549 
Current portion of lease liability1,587 1,534 
Inventory received but not invoiced 3,319 6,779 
Forward liability related to Enalare 4,063 
PEMFEXY royalty buy-down payable 15,000 
Accrued other 907 698 
Total accrued expenses$73,201 $85,844 

Leases
We lease office space in Woodcliff Lake, New Jersey for our principal office under an amended lease agreement through June 2025. We also lease a lab space in Cambridge, Massachusetts under a lease agreement through April 2024, office space located in Indianapolis, Indiana through November 2023, and an office space located in Palm Beach Gardens, Florida. All of our leases are classified as operating leases and have remaining lease terms of approximately 1.9 years. The principal office and the lab space leases include renewal options to extend the lease for up to 5 years. Furthermore, we have not elected the practical expedient to separate lease and non-lease components for all classes of underlying assets.
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The table below summarizes our total lease costs included in the condensed consolidated financial statements, as well as other required quantitative disclosures (in thousands):

March 31, 2023December 31, 2022
Operating lease cost$421 $1,507 
Total lease cost$421 $1,507 
Other information:
Cash paid for amounts included in the measurement of lease liabilities
     Operating cash flows for operating leases$421 $1,507 
Right-of-use assets obtained in exchange for new operating lease liabilities$ $ 
Weighted-average remaining lease term - operating leases 1.9 years2.1 years
Weighted-average discount rate - operating leases 6.0 %6.0 %

Balance Sheet Classification as of March 31, 2023:
Current lease liabilities (included with Accrued expenses and other liabilities)$1,587 
Long-term lease liabilities (included with Other long-term liabilities)1,055 
Total lease liabilities$2,642 



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6. Intangible Assets, Net
The gross carrying amounts and net book value of our intangible assets are as follows:
March 31, 2023
Useful Life (In Years)Gross Carrying AmountAccumulated AmortizationNet Book Value
Barhemsys intangible (1)
9$70,319 $(6,423)$63,896 
Byfavo intangible (1)
933,714 (2,902)30,812 
Ryanodex intangible (2)
915,000 (8,098)6,902 
PEMFEXY intangible (3)215,000 (3,735)11,265 
Vasopressin milestone (4)1750 (750) 
Total$134,783 $(21,908)$112,875 
December 31, 2022
Useful Life (In Years)Gross Carrying AmountAccumulated AmortizationNet Book Value
Barhemsys intangible (1)
9$70,319 $(4,462)$65,857 
Byfavo intangible (1)
933,714 (1,989)31,725 
Ryanodex intangible (2)
915,000 (7,402)7,598 
PEMFEXY intangible (3)215,000 (1,888)13,112 
Vasopressin milestone (4)1750 (715)35 
Total$134,783 $(16,456)$118,327 
(1) Represents intangible assets acquired in the Acacia acquisition as detailed in Note 13.
(2) Represents a one-time payment made to reduce the royalties payable to a third party on Ryanodex net sales.
(3) Represents a one-time payment made to reduce the royalties payable to a third party on PEMFEXY net sales.

(4) Represents milestone paid to a third party upon FDA approval of vasopressin.
Amortization expense was $5.5 million and $0.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
Estimated Amortization Expense for Intangible Assets
Based on definite-lived intangible assets recorded as of March 31, 2023, and assuming that the underlying assets will not be impaired and that we will not change the expected lives of the assets, future amortization expenses are estimated as follows:
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Estimated Amortization Expense
Year Ending December 31,
2023 (remainder)16,483 
202419,780 
202513,917 
202611,615 
202711,615 
Thereafter39,465 
Total estimated amortization expense$112,875 

7. Common Stock and Stock-Based Compensation
Common Stock
Share Repurchase Program

In March 2020, our board of directors approved our current share repurchase program (the "Share Repurchase Program"), providing for the repurchase of up to an aggregate of $160 million of our outstanding common stock.

Under the Share Repurchase Program, we are authorized to repurchase shares through open market purchases, privately-negotiated transactions, accelerated share repurchases or otherwise in accordance with applicable federal securities laws, including through Rule 10b5-1 trading plans and under Rule 10b-18 of the Exchange Act. The repurchases have no time limit and may be suspended or discontinued completely at any time. The specific timing and amount of repurchases will vary based on available capital resources and other financial and operational performance, market conditions, securities law limitations, and other factors. The repurchases will be made using our cash resources.

On September 23, 2020, our Board of Directors approved a $25 million accelerated share repurchase (“ASR”) transaction with JPMorgan Chase Bank, National Association (“JP Morgan”) as part of our existing $160 million share repurchase program. The specific number of shares to be repurchased pursuant to the ASR is based on the average of the daily volume weighted average share prices of our common stock, less a discount, during the term of the ASR program. Under the terms of our agreement with JP Morgan, we paid $25 million to JP Morgan on September 24, 2020, and received 550,623 shares, representing the notional amount of the ASR, based on the average of the daily volume weighted average share prices of our common stock, less a discount, during the term of the ASR, which was $45.40. The ASR was completed in the fourth quarter of 2020. We determined the ASR contained a forward contract and therefore we recorded fair value adjustments on the accelerated share repurchase agreement in the amount of $3 million which was a loss recorded in Other expense on our consolidated statements of operations in the year ended December 31, 2020.

As of March 31, 2023, we had repurchased an aggregate of 4,552,730 shares of common stock for an aggregate of $246.1 million pursuant to our share repurchase programs in effect since August 2016.

Stock-Based Compensation
In November 2013, our Board of Directors approved the 2014 Equity Incentive Plan (the "2014 Plan") which became effective on February 11, 2014. The 2014 Plan provides for the awards of incentive stock options, non-qualified stock options, restricted stock, restricted stock units and other stock-based awards. Awards generally vest equally over a period of four years from grant date. Vesting may be accelerated under a change in control of the Company or in the event of death or disability to the recipient. In the event of termination, any unvested shares or options are forfeited.

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In 2018, we introduced a new long-term incentive program with the objective to better align the stock-based awards granted to management with our focus on improving total shareholder return over the long-term. The stock-based awards granted under this long-term incentive program consist of time-based stock options, time-based RSUs and PSUs. PSUs are comprised of awards: i) that would have vested upon achievement of certain share price appreciation conditions or ii) that would have vested upon achievement of certain milestone events.

A summary of stock option, RSU and PSU activity under the 2014 Plan during the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022 is presented below:
 Stock OptionsRSUsPSUs
Outstanding as of December 31, 20212,814,878 263,306 137,300 
Granted86,700 148,000 228,200 
Stock options exercised/RSUs vested/PSUs vested (99,698) 
Forfeited or expired(3,130)(728) 
Outstanding as of March 31, 20222,898,448 310,880 365,500 
Outstanding as of December 31, 20222,425,833 269,163 319,100 
Granted111,268 245,850 211,800 
Stock options exercised/RSUs vested/PSUs vested (103,672) 
Forfeited or expired(6,696)(4,041) 
Outstanding as of March 31, 20232,530,405 407,300 530,900 

Stock Options
The fair value of stock options granted to employees, directors, and consultants were estimated using the following assumptions:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20232022
Risk-free interest rate
3.54% - 4.23%
1.47% - 2.53%
Volatility44.24%46.79%
Expected term (in years)5.57 years5.63 years
Expected dividend yield0.0%0.0%

RSUs
Each vested time-based RSU represents the right of a holder to receive one share of our common stock. The fair value of each RSU granted was estimated based on the trading price of our common stock on the date of grant.
PSUs
During the first quarter of 2023, we granted 211,800 market condition PSUs based on our total shareholder return ("TSR") relative to the TSR of each member of the S&P Biotechnology Select Industry Index (the defined peer group) with a weighted-average grant date fair value of $41.72 for other executives per respective PSU. The fair value of PSUs granted to employees was estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation model. Inputs used in the calculation include a risk-free interest rate of 4.39%, an expected volatility of 44%, contractual term of 4 years, and no expected dividend yield.
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The fair value of market condition PSUs granted to employees was estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation model. Inputs used in the calculation are described above.

The fair value of performance condition PSUs granted to employees was estimated based on the trading price of our common stock on the date of grant adjusted for probability of achievement of the performance conditions as described above.

We did not recognize any expense for performance based PSUs granted to employees based on our estimated probability of achievement as described above.

We recognized stock-based compensation in our condensed consolidated statements of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022 as follows:
Three Months Ended March 31,
20232022
Stock options $1,481 $1,863 
RSUs1,647 1,635 
PSUs1,511 797 
Stock-based compensation expense $4,639 $4,295 
Selling, general and administrative$3,952 $3,652 
Research and development687 643 
Stock-based compensation expense$4,639 $4,295 

8. Commitments
Our future material contractual obligations as of March 31, 2023, included the following:
ObligationsTotal2023202420252026Beyond
Operating leases (1)$2,792 $1,257 $1,122 $413 $ $ 
Credit facility and Term Loans (2)77,500 5,000 10,000 62,500   
Purchase obligations (3)86,491 86,491     
Total obligations $166,783 $92,748 $11,122 $62,913 $ $ 

(1) We lease our corporate office location. The term of our existing lease expires on June 30, 2025. We also lease our lab space under a lease agreement through April 2024, office space located in Indianapolis, Indiana through November 2023, and an office space in Palm Beach Gardens, Florida, through October 31, 2024. Rental expense for the operating leases was $0.4 million and $0.4 million, for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. The remaining future lease payments under the operating leases are $2.8 million as of March 31, 2023.
(2) Refer to Note 9, “Debt” for further information regarding our Credit Agreement and Term Loans.
(3) As of March 31, 2023, we had purchase obligations in the amount of $86.5 million which represents the contractual commitments under contract manufacturing and supply agreements with suppliers. The obligations under the supply agreements are primarily for finished product, inventory, and research and development.
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9. Debt
On November 1, 2022, we entered into the Third Amended and Restated Credit Agreement, which replaced the Second Amended Credit Agreement. The terms and amounts borrowed under the Third Amended Credit Agreement includes a drawn term loan of $50 million and a $100 million revolving credit facility of which $15 million was drawn on November 1, 2022 and an additional $15 million was drawn on February 8, 2023. On the effective date for the Third Amended Credit Agreement, we borrowed $15 million under the revolving credit facility and $50 million under the term loan facility. Approximately $35.4 million of the proceeds of the credit facility were used to refinance all amounts outstanding under the Second Amended Credit Agreement, to repay €25 million indebtedness of Acacia, and for other corporate purposes. All amounts outstanding under the Third Amended Credit Agreement shall be due and payable on October 31, 2025, unless otherwise accelerated or extended pursuant to the terms of the Third Amended Credit Agreement.

The Third Amended Credit Agreement contains customary representations and warranties and customary affirmative and negative covenants applicable to us and our consolidated subsidiaries, including, among other things, restrictions on indebtedness, liens, investments, mergers, dispositions, prepayment of other indebtedness and dividends and other distributions. Under the terms of the Third Amended Credit Agreement, we are required to comply with (a) a maximum total net leverage ratio, (b) a fixed charge coverage ratio and (c) a minimum liquidity covenant. As of March 31, 2023, we were in compliance with total net leverage ratio; fixed charge coverage ratio; and liquidity covenants.

Loans under the Third Amended Credit Agreement bear interest, at our option, at a rate equal to either (a) the SOFR rate, plus a credit adjustment spread, plus an applicable margin ranging from 2.50% to 3.25% per annum, based upon the total net leverage ratio (as defined in the Third Amended Credit Agreement), or (b) the prime lending rate, plus an applicable margin ranging from 1.50% to